International Phonetic Alphabet

히든위키 코리아
(IPA에서 넘어옴)

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used.

IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, [t], or with a letter plus diacritics, [t̺ʰ], depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either [t̺ʰ] or [t], depending on the context and language.

Occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.


The general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound (speech segment), although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. This means that:

  • It does not normally use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English.
  • There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages.
  • The IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness".

Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation. These are organized into a chart; the chart displayed here is the official chart as posted at the website of the IPA.

Types of transcription

There are two principal types of brackets used to set off IPA transcriptions:

  • [square brackets] are used with phonetic notations, possibly including details of the pronunciation that may not be used for distinguishing words in the language being transcribed, but which the author nonetheless wishes to document.
  • /slashes/ are used for phonemic notations, which note only features that are distinctive in the language, without any extraneous detail.

For example, while the /p/ sounds of pin and spin are pronounced slightly differently in English (and this difference would be meaningful in some languages), the difference is not meaningful in English. Thus phonemically the words are /pɪn/ and /spɪn/, with the same /p/ phoneme. However, to capture the difference between them (the allophones of /p/), they can be transcribed phonetically as [pʰɪn] and [spɪn].



There are many allophonic processes in English: lack of plosion, nasal plosion, partial devoicing of sonorants, complete devoicing of sonorants, partial devoicing of obstruents, lengthening and shortening vowels, and retraction.

  • Aspiration: In English, a voiceless plosive /p, t, k/ is aspirated (has a string explosion of breath) if it is at the beginning of the first or a stressed syllable in a word. For example, [pʰ] as in pin and [p] as in spin are allophones for the phoneme /p/ because they cannot distinguish words (in fact, they occur in complementary distribution). English-speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different: the first is aspirated and the second is unaspirated (plain). Many languages treat the two phones differently.
  • Nasal plosion – In English, a plosive (/p, t, k, b, d, ɡ/) has nasal plosion if it is followed by a nasal, whether within a word or across a word boundary.
  • Partial devoicing of sonorants: In English, sonorants (/j, w, l, r, m, n, ŋ/) are partially devoiced after a voiceless sound in the same syllable.
  • Complete devoicing of sonorants: In English, a sonorant is completely devoiced after an aspirated plosive (/p, t, k/).
  • Partial devoicing of obstruents: In English, a voiced obstruent is partially devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound within a word or across a word boundary.
  • Retraction: In English, /t, d, n, l/ are retracted before /r/.

Because the choice among allophones is seldom under conscious control, few people realize their existence. English-speakers may be unaware of the differences among six allophones of the phoneme /t/: unreleased [ t̚] as in cat, aspirated [tʰ] as in top, glottalized [ʔ] as in button, flapped [ɾ] as in American English water, nasalized flapped as in winter, and none of the above [t] as in stop. However, they may become aware of the differences if, for example, they contrast the pronunciations of the following words:

  • Night rate: unreleased [ˈnʌɪt̚.ɹʷeɪt̚] (without a word space between . and ɹ)
  • Nitrate: aspirated [ˈnaɪ.tʰɹ̥eɪt̚] or retracted [ˈnaɪ.tʃɹʷeɪt̚]

A flame that is held before the lips while those words are spoken flickers more for the aspirated nitrate than for the unaspirated night rate. The difference can also be felt by holding the hand in front of the lips. For a Mandarin-speaker, for whom /t/ and /tʰ/ are separate phonemes, the English distinction is much more obvious than for an English-speaker, who has learned since childhood to ignore the distinction.

Allophones of English /l/ may be noticed if the 'light' [l] of leaf [ˈliːf] is contrasted with the 'dark' [ɫ] of feel [ˈfiːɫ]. Again, the difference is much more obvious to a Turkish-speaker, for whom /l/ and /ɫ/ are separate phonemes, than to an English speaker, for whom they are allophones of a single phoneme.

English consonants

English consonants
Phones Examples
p pʰ, p pen, spin, tip
b b, b̥ but, web
t tʰ, t, ɾ, ʔ[2] two, sting, bet
d d, d̥, ɾ[3] do, daddy, odd
t͡ʃʰ, t͡ʃ chair, nature, teach
d͡ʒ, d͜ʒ̊ gin, joy, edge
k kʰ, k cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ ɡ, ɡ̊ go, get, beg
f f fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v v, v̥ voice, have, of
θ θ, t̪[4] thing, teeth
ð ð, ð̥, d̪[5] this, breathe, father
s s see, city, pass
z z, z̥ zoo, rose
ʃ ʃ she, sure, session, emotion, leash
ʒ ʒ, ʒ̊ genre, pleasure, beige, equation, seizure
h h, ɦ,[6] ç[7] ham, hue
m m, ɱ[8] man, ham
n n no, tin
ŋ ŋ ringer, sing,[9] finger, drink
l l, ɫ,[10] l̥, ɫ̥,[11] ɤ[12] w, o, ʊ[13] left, bell, sable, please
r ɹʷ, ɹ, ɾ,[14] ɻ, ɹ̥ʷ, ɹ̥, ɾ̥, ɻ̊,[11] ʋ[15] run, very, probably
w w, w̥[11] we, queen
j j yes, nyala
hw ʍ, w[16] what
Marginal consonants
x x, χ, k, kʰ, h, ɦ, ç loch (Scottish),[17] ugh[18]
ʔ ʔ uh-oh

English vowels

LS: Wells standard lexical set

RP: Received Pronunciation

GA: General American

Full monophthongs
BATH ɑː æ
CLOTH ɔ, ɑ


Full diphthongs

Pre-R vowels
NURSE ɜː(r) ɜr
START ɑː(r) ɑr
NORTH ɔː(r) ɔr
FORCE ɔr, oʊr
NEAR ɪə(r) ɪr
SQUARE eə(r) ɛr
CURE ʊə(r) ʊr

Reduced vowels
LETTER ə(r) ər


Korean mainland has many dialects, but each dialect user can understand another dialetc user's talk. But Jeju Island's dialect is quite different to mainland's dialects so Jeju people and Korean mainland people can't talk each other because they can't understand other's language. But nowadays Jeju Island's people learn mainland Korean language from schools and TV, so they can speak standard Korean. But sometimes they are classified into diffenent languages.

Korean consonants

Korean has 19 consonant phonemes.

For each stop and affricate, there is a three-way contrast between unvoiced segments, which are distinguished as plain, tense, and aspirated.

  • The "plain" segments, sometimes referred to as "lax" or "lenis," are considered to be the more "basic" or unmarked members of the Korean obstruent series.
  • The "tense" segments, also referred to as "fortis," "hard," or "glottalized," have eluded precise description and have been the subject of considerable phonetic investigation. In the Korean alphabet as well as all widely used romanization systems for Korean, they are represented as doubled plain segments: ㅃ pp, ㄸ tt, ㅉ jj, ㄲ kk. As it was suggested from the Middle Korean spelling, the tense consonants came from the initial consonant clusters sC-, pC-, psC-.[2][3]:29, 38, 452
  • The aspirated segments are characterized by aspiration, a burst of air accompanied by the delayed onset of voicing.
  • Also, the "plain" segments are distinguished from the tense and aspirated phonemes by changes in vowel quality, including a relatively lower pitch of the following vowel.

Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA
plain 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA
tense 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA
aspirated 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA
Fricative plain 틀:IPA 틀:IPA
tense 틀:IPA
Liquid 틀:IPA
Approximant 틀:IPA 틀:IPA 틀:IPA

Example words for consonant phonemes
IPA Example
틀:IPA bul 틀:IPA 'fire' or 'light'
틀:IPA ppul 틀:IPA 'horn'
틀:IPA pul 틀:IPA 'grass' or 'glue'
틀:IPA mul 틀:IPA 'water' or 'liquid'
틀:IPA dal 틀:IPA 'moon'
틀:IPA ttal 틀:IPA 'daughter'
틀:IPA tal 틀:IPA 'mask' or 'trouble'
틀:IPA nal 틀:IPA 'day' or 'blade'
틀:IPA 자다 jada 틀:IPA 'to sleep'
틀:IPA 짜다 jjada 틀:IPA 'to squeeze' or 'to be salty'
틀:IPA 차다 chada 틀:IPA 'to kick' or 'to be cold'
틀:IPA 가다 gada 틀:IPA 'to go'
틀:IPA 까다 kkada 틀:IPA 'to peel'
틀:IPA kal 틀:IPA 'knife'
틀:IPA bang 틀:IPA 'room'
틀:IPA sal 틀:IPA 'flesh'
틀:IPA ssal 틀:IPA 'uncooked grains of rice'
틀:IPA 바람 baram 틀:IPA 'wind' or 'wish'
틀:IPA 하다 hada 틀:IPA 'to do'

The IPA symbol ⟨◌͈⟩, resembling a subscript double straight quotation mark, shown here with a placeholder circle, is used to denote the tensed consonants /p͈/, /t͈/, /k͈/, /t͈ɕ/, /s͈/. Sometimes the tense consonants are marked with an apostrophe, ⟨ʼ⟩, but that is not IPA usage; in the IPA, the apostrophe indicates ejective consonants. Its official use in the Extensions to the IPA is for strong articulation, but is used in literature for faucalized voice. The Korean consonants also have elements of stiff voice, but it is not yet[when?] known how typical that is of faucalized consonants. They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngeal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx.

An alternative analysis[5] proposes that the "tensed" series of sounds are (fundamentally) regular voiceless, unaspirated consonants: the "lax" sounds are voiced consonants that become devoiced initially, and the primary distinguishing feature between word-initial "lax" and "tensed" consonants is that initial lax sounds cause the following vowel to assume a low-to-high pitch contour, a feature reportedly associated with voiced consonants in many Asian languages, whereas tensed (and also aspirated) consonants are associated with a uniformly high pitch.

/p, t, tɕ, k/ are voiced [b, d, dʑ, ɡ] between voiced sounds but voiceless elsewhere. Among younger generations, they may be just as aspirated as /pʰ, tʰ, tɕʰ, kʰ/ in initial position; the primary difference is that the following vowel carries a low tone.[6][7] /pʰ, tʰ, tɕʰ, kʰ/ are strongly aspirated, more so than English voiceless stops. /tɕ͈, tɕʰ, tɕ~dʑ/ may be pronounced /ts͈, tsʰ, ts~dz/ by some speakers, especially before back vowels.

The analysis of /s/ as phonologically plain or aspirated has been a source of controversy in the literature.[8] Its characteristics are nearest to those of plain stops, as it generally undergoes intervocalic voicing word-medially.[4] It shows moderate aspiration word-initially, but no aspiration word-medially.[4] /s, s͈/ are palatalized [ɕ, ɕ͈] before /i, j/.

/m, n/ tend to be denasalized word-initially.[9] /ŋ/ appears only between vowels and in the syllable coda.

/l/ is an alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels or between a vowel and an /h/; and is [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a word, before a consonant other than /h/, or next to another /l/. It is unstable at the beginning of a word, tending to become [n] before most vowels and silent before /i, j/, but it is commonly [ɾ] in English loanwords.

Between vowels, /h/ may either be voiced [ɦ] or become inaudible or even often disappear.

Korean positional allophones

Korean consonants have three principal positional allophones: initial, medial (voiced), and final (checked). The initial form is found at the beginning of phonological words. The medial form is found in voiced environments, intervocalically and after a voiced consonant such as n or l. The final form is found in checked environments such as at the end of a phonological word or before an obstruent consonant such as t or k. Nasal consonants (m, n, ng) do not have noticeable positional allophones beyond initial denasalization, and ng cannot appear in this position.

The table below is out of alphabetical order to make the relationships between the consonants explicit:



















Initial allophone k n/a t s tɕʰ t͈ɕ n~n͊ ɾ, n~n͊ p m~m͊ h
Medial allophone k~ɡ ŋ t~d s~z tɕ~dʑ n ɾ p~b m h~ɦ~n/a
Final allophone n/a l n/a n/a

Actually, Korean medial allophone ㅂ and English medial allophone p are different, but IPA usually ignore small differences.

pin [pʰin]

spin [spin]

빈 [pin]

핀 [pʰin]

삔 [p͈in]

스빈 [sɯː.bin]

스핀 [sɯː.pʰin]

스삔 [sɯː.p͈in]

For native Korean people, "spin [spin]" and "sky /skaɪ/" hear like "ㅅ삔 [sp͈in]" and "ㅅ까이 [sk͈ai]". See tenuis consonant article for more details.

In linguistics, a tenuis consonant (/ˈtɛn.juɪs/) is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.

In other words, it has the "plain" phonation of [p, t, ts, tʃ, k] with a voice onset time close to zero (a zero-VOT consonant), as Spanish p, t, ch, k or English p, t, k after s (spy, sty, sky).

sister /ˈsɪs.tɚ/

시스터 [ɕi.sɯ.tʰʌ]

In Korean language, /s/ before /i, j/ becomes [ɕ] sound. But /s/ before /ɯ, o, u, w, a, ʌ, ɛ, e/ becomes [s] sound.

All obstruents (stops, affricates, fricatives) become stops with no audible release at the end of a word: all coronals collapse to [t̚], all labials to [p̚], and all velars to [k̚]. Final ㄹ r is a lateral [l] or [ɭ].

ㅎ h does not occur in final position, though it does occur at the end of non-final syllables, where it affects the following consonant. (See below.) Intervocalically, it is realized as voiced [ɦ], and after voiced consonants it is either [ɦ] or silent.

ㅇ ng does not occur in initial position, reflected in the way the hangeul jamo ㅇ has a different pronunciation in the initial position to the final position. These were distinguished when hangeul was created, with the jamo ㆁ with the upper dot and the jamo ㅇ without the upper dot; these were then conflated and merged in the standards for both the North Korean and South Korean standards.

In native Korean words, ㄹ r does not occur either, unlike in Chinese loans (Sino-Korean vocabulary) for which it is silent in initial position before /i/ and /j/, pronounced [n] before other vowels, and pronounced [ɾ] only in compound words after a vowel. The prohibition on word-initial r is called the "initial law" (두음법칙) in South Korea. Initial r is officially pronounced [ɾ] in North Korea. In both countries, initial r in words of foreign origin other than Chinese is pronounced [ɾ].

  • "labour" (勞動) – North Korea: rodong (로동), South Korea: nodong (노동)
  • "history" (歷史) – North Korea: ryŏksa (력사), South Korea: yeoksa (역사)

This rule also extends to ㄴ n in many native and all Sino-Korean words, which is also lost before initial /i/ and /j/ in South Korean; again, North Korean preserves the [n] phoneme there.

  • "female" (女子) – North Korea: nyŏja (녀자), South Korea: yeoja (여자)

North Koreans pronounce ㅈ, ㅊ as [ts], [tsʰ]

Korean vowels

Korean has eight vowel phonemes and a length distinction for each. Long vowels are pronounced somewhat more peripherally than short ones. Two more vowels, the mid front rounded vowel ([ø] ㅚ) and the close front rounded vowel ([y] ㅟ),[11]:6 can still be heard in the speech of some older speakers, but they have been largely replaced by the diphthongs [we] and [ɥi], respectively.[3]:4–6 In a 2003 survey of 350 speakers from Seoul, nearly 90% pronounced the vowel 'ㅟ' as [ɥi].[12]

In 2012, vowel length is reported almost completely neutralized in Korean, except for a very few older speakers of Seoul dialect,[13] for whom the distinctive vowel-length distinction is maintained only in the first syllable of a word.[12]

The distinction between /e/ and /ɛ/ is lost in South Korean dialects but robust in North Korean dialects.[14][15] For the speakers who do not make the difference, [e̞] seems to be the dominant form.[3]:4–6 For most of the speakers who still utilize vowel length contrastively, long /ʌː/ is actually [ɘː].[10] In Seoul Korean, /o/ is produced higher than /ʌ/, while in Pyongan, /o/ is lower than /ʌ/.[15] In Northeastern Korean tonal dialect, the two are comparable in height and the main contrast is along pitch.[15] Within Seoul Korean, /o/ is raised toward /u/ while /ɯ/ is fronted away from /u/ in younger speakers’ speech.[15]

Middle Korean had an additional vowel phoneme denoted by ᆞ, known as arae-a (literally "lower a"). The vowel merged with [a] in all mainland varieties of Korean but remains distinct in Jeju, where it is pronounced [ɒ].

Vowel phonemes[19]
IPA Hangul Example
/i/ 시장 sijang [ɕi.dʑɐŋ] 'hunger'
/iː/ 시장 sijang [ɕiː.dʑɐŋ] 'market'
/e/ 베개 begae [pe̞.ɡɛ̝] 'pillow'
/eː/ 베다 beda [peː.dɐ] 'to cut'
/ɛ/ 태양 taeyang [tʰɛ̝.jɐŋ] 'sun'
/ɛː/ 태도 taedo [tʰɛː.do] 'attitude'
/a/ mal [mɐl] 'horse'
/aː/ mal [mɐːl] 'word, language'
/o/ 보리 bori [po̞.ɾi] 'barley'
/oː/ 보수 bosu [poː.su̞] 'salary'
/u/ 구리 guri [ku.ɾi] 'copper'
/uː/ 수박 subak [suː.bäk̚] 'watermelon'
/ʌ/ beol [pʌl] 'punishment'
/ʌː/ beol [pɘːl] 'bee'
/ɯ/ 어른 eoreun [ɘː.ɾɯn] 'seniors'
/ɯː/ 음식 eumsik [ɯːm.ɕik̚] 'food'
/ø/ [we] 교회 gyohoe [ˈkjoːɦø̞] ~ [kjoː.βwe̞] 'church'
/øː/ [weː] 외투 oetu [ø̞ː.tʰu] ~ [we̞ː.tʰu] 'overcoat'
/y/ [ɥi] jwi [t͡ɕy] ~ [t͡ɕɥi] 'mouse'
/yː/ [ɥiː] 귀신 gwisin [ˈkyːɕin] ~ [ˈkɥiːɕin] 'ghost'

Diphthongs and glides

Because they may follow consonants in initial position in a word, which no other consonant can do, and also because of hangul orthography, which transcribes them as vowels, semivowels such as /j/ and /w/ are sometimes considered to be elements of rising diphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.

Diphthongs, disregarding length[19]
IPA Hangul Example
/je/ 예산 yesan [je̞ː.sɐn] 'budget'
/jɛ/ 얘기 yaegi [jɛ̝ː.ɡi] 'story'
/ja/ [jɐ] 야구 yagu [jɐː.ɡu] 'baseball'
/jo/ 교사 gyosa [kjoː.sa] 'teacher'
/ju/ 유리 yuri [ju.ɾi] 'glass'
/jʌ/ 여기 yeogi [jʌ.ɡi] 'here'
/wi ~ y/ [ɥi] dwi [tɥi] 'back'
/we/ gwe [kwe̞] 'chest' or 'box'
/wɛ/ wae [wɛ̝] 'why'
/wa/ [wɐ] 과일 gwail [kwɐː.il] 'fruit'
/wʌ/ mwo [mwəː] 'what'
/ɰi/ [ɰi ~ i] 의사 uisa [ɰi.sɐ] 'doctor'

In current pronunciation, /ɰi/ merges into /i/ after a consonant.[citation needed] Some analyses treat /ɯ/ as a central vowel and thus the marginal sequence /ɰi/ as having a central-vowel onset, which would be more accurately transcribed [ȷ̈i] or [ɨ̯i].[11]:12

Modern Korean has no falling diphthongs, with sequences like /a.i/ being considered as two separate vowels in hiatus. Middle Korean had a full set of diphthongs ending in /j/, which monophthongized into the front vowels in Early Modern Korean (/aj/ > /ɛ/, /əj/ [ej] > /e/, /oj/ > /ø/, /uj/ > /y/, /ɯj/ > /ɰi ~ i/).[11]:12 This is the reason why the hangul letters ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ and so on are represented as back vowels plus i.

Korean assimilation

Korean vowel assimilation

Allophones of consonants before vowels
/i, j/ /ɯ/ /o, u, w/ /a, ʌ, ɛ, e/
/s/ [ɕ] [s]
/s͈/ [ɕ͈] [s͈]
/t/ + suffix [dʑ]- [d]-
/tʰ/ + suffix [tɕʰ]- [tʰ]-
/kʰ/ [cç] [kx] [kʰ]
/h/ word-initially [ç] [x] [ɸʷ] [h]
/h/ intervocalically [ʝ] [ɣ] [β] [ɦ]

Korean consonant assimilation

Phonetic realization (before /a/) of underlying consonant sequences in Korean
1st C \ 2nd C


















h- n/a k̚.kʰ n/a t̚.tʰ n/a n.n n/a p̚.pʰ n/a s.s͈ n/a t̚.tɕʰ n/a
velar stops1 k̚.k͈ k̚.t͈ ŋ.n ŋ.m k̚.p͈ k.s͈ k̚.t͈ɕ k̚.tɕʰ k̚.kʰ k̚.tʰ k̚.pʰ .kʰ
ng- ŋ ŋ.ɡ ŋ.k͈ ŋ.d ŋ.t͈ ŋ.b ŋ.p͈ ŋ.z ŋ.s͈ ŋ.dʑ ŋ.t͈ɕ ŋ.tɕʰ ŋ.kʰ ŋ.tʰ ŋ.pʰ ŋ.ɦ ~ .ŋ
coronal stops2 t̚.k͈ t̚.t͈ n.n n.m t̚.p͈ s.s͈ t̚.t͈ɕ t̚.tɕʰ t̚.kʰ t̚.tʰ t̚.pʰ .tʰ
n- n n.ɡ n.k͈ n.d n.t͈ n.n l.l n.b n.p͈ n.z n.s͈ n.dʑ n.t͈ɕ n.tɕʰ n.kʰ n.tʰ n.pʰ n.ɦ ~ .n
r- l l.ɡ l.k͈ l.d l.t͈ l.l l.m l.b l.p͈ l.z l.s͈ l.dʑ l.t͈ɕ l.tɕʰ l.kʰ l.tʰ l.pʰ l.ɦ ~ .ɾ
labial stops3 p̚.k͈ p̚.t͈ m.n m.m p̚.p͈ p.s͈ p̚.t͈ɕ p̚.tɕʰ p̚.kʰ p̚.tʰ p̚.pʰ .pʰ
m- m m.ɡ m.k͈ m.d m.t͈ m.b m.p͈ m.z m.s͈ m.dʑ m.t͈ɕ m.tɕʰ m.kʰ m.tʰ m.pʰ m.ɦ ~ .m
  1. Velar obstruents found in final position: ㄱ g, ㄲ kk, ㅋ k
  2. Final coronal obstruents: ㄷ d, ㅌ t, ㅅ s, ㅆ ss, ㅈ j, ㅊ ch
  3. Final labial obstruents: ㅂ b, ㅍ p

Korean phonotactics

Korean syllable structure is maximally /CGVC/, where /G/ is a glide /j, w, ɰ/. Any consonant except /ŋ/ may occur initially, but only /p, t, k, m, n, ŋ, l/ may occur finally. Sequences of two consonants may occur between vowels, as outlined above. However, morphemes may also end in CC clusters, which are both expressed only when they are followed by a vowel. When the morpheme is not suffixed, one of the consonants is not expressed; if there is a /h/, which cannot appear in final position, it will be that. Otherwise it will be a coronal consonant, and if the sequence is two coronals, the voiceless one (/s, tʰ, tɕ/) will drop, and /n/ or /l/ will remain. Thus, no sequence reduces to [t̚] in final position.











Medial allophone [k̚s͈] [lɡ] [ndʑ] [n(ɦ)] [ls͈] [ltʰ] [l(ɦ)] [p̚s͈] [lb] [lpʰ] [lm]
Final allophone [k̚] [n] [l] [p̚] [m]

When such a sequence is followed by a consonant, the same reduction takes place, but a trace of the lost consonant may remain in its effect on the following consonant. The effects are the same as in a sequence between vowels: an elided obstruent will leave the third consonant fortis, if it is a stop, and an elided |h| will leave it aspirated. Most conceivable combinations do not actually occur; a few examples are |lh-tɕ| = [ltɕʰ], |nh-t| = [ntʰ], |nh-s| = [ns͈], |ltʰ-t| = [lt͈], |ps-k| = [p̚k͈], |ps-tɕ| = [p̚t͈ɕ]; also |ps-n| = [mn], as /s/ has no effect on a following /n/, and |ks-h| = [kʰ], with the /s/ dropping out.

When the second and third consonants are homorganic obstruents, they merge, becoming fortis or aspirate, and, depending on the word and a preceding |l|, might not elide: |lk-k| is [lk͈].

An elided |l| has no effect: |lk-t| = [k̚t͈], |lk-tɕ| = [k̚t͈ɕ], |lk-s| = [k̚s͈], |lk-n| = [ŋn], |lm-t| = [md], |lp-k| = [p̚k͈], |lp-t| = [p̚t͈], |lp-tɕ| = [p̚t͈ɕ], |lpʰ-t| = [p̚t͈], |lpʰ-tɕ| = [p̚t͈ɕ], |lp-n| = [mn].

Among vowels, the sequences /*jø, *jy, *jɯ, *ji; *wø, *wy, *wo, *wɯ, *wu/ do not occur, and it is not possible to write them using standard hangul. The semivowel [ɰ] occurs only in the diphthong /ɰi/, and is prone to being deleted after a consonant. There are no offglides in Korean; historical diphthongs /*aj, *ʌj, *uj, *oj, *ɯj/ have become modern monophthongs /ɛ/, /e/, /y ~ ɥi/, /ø ~ we/, /ɰi/.


Japanese mainland's language is different to Ryukyuan languages and Ainu language.

IPA Description Japanese example English approximation
틀:IPA Long vowel hyōmei, ojiisan re-equalize
틀:IPA Pitch drop[20] 틀:IPA (‎"oyster"), 틀:IPA (‎"fence") /ˈmɛri/ (merry), /məˈriː/ (Marie)
. Syllabification nin'i 틀:IPA react /ri.ækt/

Japanese consonants

IPA Hiragana example Transliteration English approximation
틀:IPA link しょ, か basho, kabin bug
틀:IPA びょうき byōki beauty
틀:IPA link と, ひょ hito, hyō hue
틀:IPA link た, いっしょ shita, isshō sheep
틀:IPA link うも, dōmo, dōdō doctor
틀:IPA link[21] っと, ん, キッズ zutto, zenzen, kizzu[22] cards
틀:IPA link[21] , つ aza, tsuzuku zoo
틀:IPA link[21] ぶん, ょじょ, エッジ jibun, jojo, ejji[22] jeep
틀:IPA link[21] かい, じょ mijikai, jojo vision
틀:IPA link fuji roughly like foot
틀:IPA link[23] っこう, ごご, んこう gakkō, gogo, ginkō goat
틀:IPA[23] ぎょ kigyō argue
틀:IPA link ん, はは hon, haha hat
틀:IPA link くしゃ, ゆゆしい yakusha, yuyushii yacht
틀:IPA link る, はっき kuru, hakki skate
틀:IPA きょうかい, けっきょ kyōkai, kekkyoku skew
틀:IPA link かん, せぱい, もんも mikan, senpai, monmon much
틀:IPA みゃ myaku mute
틀:IPA link っとう, かたん nattō , kantan not
틀:IPA link わ, こんにゃく, きちょう niwa, konnyaku, kinchō canyon
틀:IPA link[23] ご, なきょく ringo, nankyoku pink
틀:IPA link |にほ nihon roughly like long
틀:IPA link ン, たんぽぽ pan, tampopo span
틀:IPA っぴょ happyō spew
틀:IPA link く, そ roku, sora American better
틀:IPA りょうり ryōri American party
틀:IPA link る, さっそ suru, sassō soup
틀:IPA link べる, とって taberu, totte stop
틀:IPA link なみ, いっつ tsunami, ittsui[22] cats
틀:IPA link かい, けっちゃ chikai, ketchaku[22] itchy
틀:IPA link[24] さび wasabi roughly like was
틀:IPA[25] いき, でわ, あしん fun'iki, denwa, anshin sin
틀:IPA link あつ atsu'! uh-oh (glottal stop)

Japanese vowels

IPA Hiragana example Transliteration English approximation
틀:IPA link aru father
틀:IPA link eki bet
틀:IPA link iru meet
틀:IPA[26] shita whispered meet
틀:IPA link oni story
틀:IPA link[27] なぎ unagi roughly like food
틀:IPA[27][26] きやき sukiyaki roughly like whispered food


Chinese has many dialects, and their users can't talk each other because Chinese dialects are quite different, so they can't understand. They are actually foreign languages but they'are similar and under one governemt so they are regarded as one language.

On the other hand, Spanish language and Portuguese language are regarded as different languages though they can understand other's language. Because Spain and Portugal are different countries so linguists classified them into different languages.

Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin.

IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example Tone number Description
틀:IPA ā a1 55 tone 1: high: 틀:IPA
틀:IPA á a2 ˊ 35 tone 2: mid rising: 틀:IPA
틀:IPA ǎ a3 ˇ 21, 11, 13, 214 tone 3:
medially, low: 틀:IPA
initially, mid falling: 틀:IPA
finally, low rising: 틀:IPA
in isolation, dipping: 틀:IPA
틀:IPA à a4 ˋ 51 tone 4: high falling: 틀:IPA
틀:IPA a a0 ˙ - "toneless":
low after the high falling tone 틀:IPA;
mid after other tones
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

Chinese consonants

IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
틀:IPA link b p 幫 (帮) span
틀:IPA link p p' pan
틀:IPA link m moon
틀:IPA link f fan
틀:IPA link d t stop
틀:IPA link t t' top
틀:IPA link n- noon
-n ㄣ, ㄢ 金, 尖
틀:IPA link l 來 (来) leaf
틀:IPA link g k skin
틀:IPA link k k' kin
틀:IPA link -ng ㄥ, ㄤ 井, 江 song
틀:IPA link h Scottish English: loch; often weakened to [h] (as in English hat)
틀:IPA link j ch like itchy, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[28]
틀:IPA link q ch' like cheap, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[28]
틀:IPA link x hs 曉 (晓) like sheep, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[28]
틀:IPA link zh ch roughly like jaw, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
틀:IPA link ch ch' like church, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
틀:IPA link sh like show, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
틀:IPA link인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다;

잘못된 이름입니다, 너무 많은 등

r- j like red, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
틀:IPA link z ts roughly like buds
틀:IPA link c ts' cats hissing
틀:IPA link s same
틀:IPA link y-/-i- 틀:IPA linkes
틀:IPA link w-/-u- 틀:IPA linkater
틀:IPA link yu-/-ü-[29] yü-/-ü- French: n틀:IPA linkit
Syllabic consonants
틀:IPA zhi, chi, shi, ri ih 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다;

잘못된 이름입니다, 너무 많은 등

之, 吃, 師 (师), 日 roughly like glasses[30]
틀:IPA zi, ci, si û 子, 次, 私

Chinese vowels

IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
틀:IPA link a ㄚ, ㄢ, ㄤ 阿, 安, 盎 father
er êrh
틀:IPA link yan/-ian yen/-ien ㄧㄢ Varies between 틀:IPA and 틀:IPA
yuan/-üan ㄩㄢ
틀:IPA link ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh 也, 月 yes
틀:IPA link en,인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다;

잘못된 이름입니다, 너무 많은 등 eng

ên, êng ㄣ, ㄥ 本, 冷 about
틀:IPA link e ê / o[31]
틀:IPA link wo/-uo[32] o[33] war in British English
틀:IPA link yi/-i see
틀:IPA link -ong -ung ㄨㄥ, ㄩㄥ 冬, 用 Varies between 틀:IPA and 틀:IPA
틀:IPA link wu/-u shoe
틀:IPA link yu/-ü[29] yü/-ü German: ü; French: tu
틀:IPA ai time
틀:IPA ao out
틀:IPA ei인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다;

잘못된 이름입니다, 너무 많은 등

틀:IPA ou인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다;

잘못된 이름입니다, 너무 많은 등

歐 (欧) show
Rhotic vowel
틀:IPA link er êrh sir (American English)[34]

See also


  1. This is a compromise IPA transcription, which covers most dialects of English.
  2. /t/ is pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, [ʔ] in some positions in Scottish English, English English, American English and Australian English, and [t̞] non-initially in Irish English.
  3. /d/ is pronounced [ɾ] if preceded and followed by vowels in GA and Australian English.
  4. /θ/ is pronounced as a dental stop [t̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, Indian English, and New York English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. The dental stop [t̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /θ/.
  5. /ð/ is pronounced as a dental stop [d̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, Indian English, and New York English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [d̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /ð/.
  6. The glottal fricative /h/ is often pronounced as voiced [ɦ] between vowel sounds and after voiced consonants.
  7. /h/ is pronounced [ç] before the palatal approximant /j/, and sometimes before high front vowels.
  8. The bilabial nasal /m/ is pronounced as labiodental [ɱ] before f and v, as in symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni], circumvent [ˌsɝkəɱˈvɛnt], some value [ˌsʌɱˈvæɫjuː].
  9. In some dialects, such as Brummie, words like ringer, sing /ˈɹɪŋə ˈsɪŋ/, which have a velar nasal [ŋ] in most dialects, are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/.
  10. Velarized [ɫ] traditionally does not occur in Irish English; clear or plain [l] does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP, some other English accents, and South African English, however, have clear [l] in syllable onsets and dark [ɫ] in syllable rimes.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Sonorants are voiceless after a fortis (voiceless) stop at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
  12. L-vocalization in which l is pronounced as [ɤ] is prevalent in Standard Singapore English.
  13. L-vocalization in which l is pronounced as [w], [o], and [ʊ] occurs in New Zealand English and many regional accents not included in the chart, such as Cockney, New York English, Estuary English, Pittsburgh English, and African-American Vernacular English.
  14. /r/ is pronounced as a tap [ɾ] in some varieties of Scottish and Irish English.
  15. R-labialization, in which r is pronounced as [ʋ], is found in some accents in Southern England.
  16. Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Irish English, and many American South and New England dialects, distinguish voiceless [ʍ] from voiced [w]; see winewhine merger and voiceless labiovelar approximant.
  17. Marginal in most accents, and otherwise merged with /k/, see Lockloch merger.
  18. This common English interjection is usually pronounced with [x] in unscripted spoken English, but it is most often read /ʌɡ/ or /ʌk/
  19. 19.0 19.1 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; Lee라는 이름을 가진 주석에 제공한 텍스트가 없습니다
  20. A pitch drop may occur only once per word and does not occur in all words. The mora before a pitch drop has a high pitch. When it occurs at the end of a word, the following grammatical particle has a low pitch.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 In some dialects such as the Tokyo dialect, the voiced fricatives 틀:IPA are generally pronounced as affricates 틀:IPA in word-initial positions and after the moraic nasal 틀:IPA (pronounced [n] before 틀:IPA and [ɲ] before 틀:IPA) or the sokuon 틀:IPA (spelled ッ, only in loanwords). However, the actual realization of those sounds varies greatly, depending on region and speaker (see Yotsugana).
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 When an affricate consonant is geminated, only the closure component of it is repeated: 틀:IPA.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 When placed between vowels, /ɡ/ is sometimes pronounced [ŋ] by older speakers.
  24. 틀:IPA, romanized w, is the consonant equivalent of the vowel 틀:IPA, which is pronounced with varying degrees of rounding, depending on dialect.
  25. The moraic nasal 틀:IPA is pronounced as some kind of nasalized vowel before a vowel, semivowel (틀:IPA) or fricative (틀:IPA). 틀:IPA is a conventional notation that is undefined for the exact place of articulation.
  26. 26.0 26.1 In many dialects including the Tokyo dialect, close vowels 틀:IPA and 틀:IPA become voiceless (marked by a ring under the symbol) when they are surrounded by voiceless consonants and not followed by a pitch drop.
  27. 27.0 27.1 틀:IPA, romanized u, exhibits varying degrees of rounding, depending on dialect. In the Tokyo dialect, it is either unrounded or compressed (틀:IPA), meaning the sides of the lips are held together without horizontal protrusion, rather than protruded [u].
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 틀:IPA are always followed by 틀:IPA or 틀:IPA.
  29. 29.0 29.1 ü (/y/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /u/ cannot occur after them.
  30. Voiced continuants (also transcribed 틀:IPA or 틀:IPA) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant
  31. ⟨ê⟩ is spelled as ⟨o⟩ after ⟨k, k', h⟩ in Wade-Giles.
  32. ⟨uo⟩ is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨b, p, m, f⟩ in Pinyin.
  33. ㄨㄛ is spelled as ⟨o⟩, except for ⟨k, k', h, sh⟩ (as ⟨kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo⟩) in Wade-Giles.
  34. The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.